Published Research Papers

We're proud of our Research & Development and want to share our research papers published in academic journals to prove the effectiveness of our products.


New disinfectants for inactivation and disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: comparison with market leaders



Background: Hospital-acquired infections are a major global burden that is largely preventable. Strict cleaning protocols and effective disinfectants are essential standard practice in healthcare settings to prevent the spread of pathogens. Nevertheless, one in twenty-five hospital patients experience at least one healthcare-associated infection.

Methods: The bactericidal efficacy of four disinfectants was tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the AOAC use-dilution test. Two glutaraldehyde-based products, Microbide-G and Cidex PlusTM 28, were directly compared, and two ortho-phthalaldehyde-based products, Microbide-O and Cidex®OPA, were similarly tested. The difference between the tested agents is the micellar nature of the disinfectant in the Microbide products. All disinfectants were tested with various contact times and at two temperatures.

Results: At 20°C, Microbide-G was the only product to achieve full disinfection after three minutes of contact time, while Cidex PlusTM 28 failed up to eight minutes of contact time. Microbide-O passed after five minutes of contact time, whereas Cidex®OPA did not. At 45°C, all products performed better, but the Microbide products required less time of exposure compared to those of Cidex.

Conclusion: The results indicate that Microbide-G and Microbide-O display greater efficacies than the current commercial products for successful elimination of aeruginosa. Furthermore, the micellar nature of the Microbide products reduces volatility of the active components, decreasing respiratory exposure.

Keywords: hospital-acquired infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, disinfectant, AOAC use-dilution test, Microbide, Cidex

Inactivation and Disinfection of Poliovirus Type 1 on Nonporous Carriers



The inactivation of poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) deposited on glass carriers in the presence of low vs. high organic loads was investigated using two micellized aldehyde-based disinfectants and sodium hypochlorite. Inactivation at 21 °C of PV-1 deposited on glass carriers in the presence of low organic load was rapid (within 1 minute) and complete (≥3log10) for Microbide-S (100,000ppm), Microbide-G (30,000ppm) and sodium hypochlorite (30,000ppm). Disinfectant concentrations less than 10,000ppm resulted in incomplete inactivation of PV-1 at up to 5 minutes contact time at this low level of organic load. In the presence of high organic load, the three disinfectants also displayed rapid (within 1 minute) and complete (≥3-4 log10) inactivation of PV-1 when applied at concentrations >10,000ppm. The efficacies of the three disinfectants for inactivating PV-1 on glass carriers were therefore found to be similar at one-minute contact time, regardless of the presence of low vs. high organic load, although the time kinetics of inactivation deviated rapidly from linearity in the case of PV-1 in the presence of high organic load. This is thought to reflect binding of active agents to the organic load or protection of virus by the organic load. The impact of this can be mitigated by applying a high concentration of disinfectant (>10,000ppm). The results indicate that Microbide-S and Microbide-G display efficacies comparable to sodium hypochlorite for inactivation of PV-1 deposited on non-porous surfaces in the presence of low or high organic load and can be used as successful anti-viral disinfectants. 

Inactivation and Disinfection of Porcine Parvovirus on a Nonporous Surface 



Animal parvoviruses have historically been accorded status as “highly resistant to inactivation”. This status has been based largely on the well-known heat and chemical inactivation resistance of the animal parvoviruses (especially porcine, canine, bovine, and murine parvoviruses) in liquid inactivation settings. On the other hand, less is known about the relative resistance of parvoviruses to disinfection after being dried on surfaces. In the present article, we evaluate the ability of sodium hypochlorite and two proprietary aldehyde-based disinfectants to inactivate porcine parvovirus (PPV) dried on glass carriers in the presence and absence of varying organic load. Sodium hypochlorite and Microbide-G (a glutaraldehyde-based agent) caused rapid and complete (≥ 3 to 4 log10) inactivation of PPV deposited on glass carriers in a low organic load (5% serum) matrix. Microbide-G displayed the greatest inactivation efficacy for PPV deposited onto a glass surface in a blood matrix. In that case, a contact time of 10 min resulted in 3.5 log10 inactivation at ambient temperature.